Basically, a centrifugal pump is built around a casing that consists of fluid, mostly water. A specific component within the pump's casing applies a rotary motion which makes the fluid to rotate, resulting in centrifugal force which channels the fluid through an outlet. A vacuum is created by the discharged liquid, which makes it possible for the atmospheric pressure to exert its force on the fluid, forcing it out of the casing. This process will continue as long as there is a constant supply of fluid and the rotational motion is sustained. Rotary motion in most centrifugal pumps is created by impellers or vanes, although there are variation in system implementation and designs owing to project's requirement and capacity.
Basic concepts of centrifugal pumping:
To demonstrate the basic principles of centrifugal pumping, it's imperative to take into consideration a simplified version of the pumping mechanism in an industry. A cylindrical container that has a pair of rotary vanes within its interior can be connected to a shaft. A pulley linked with the shaft is responsible for creating rotational movement within the cylindrical vessel. After water has been filled in the vessel, the pulley starts to rotate at high speed, making the container to move round. As fluid rotation inside the container continues, the centrifugal force pushes the liquid toward the can's walls where it presses against the container's edges.
Since the liquid is not able to press any further on the walls of the container, it starts finding it way upwards, leading to an overflow as the liquid as the center draws downward. The overflowing fluid flows at a velocity that is similar to the rim, implying that it is possible to maintain the initial kinetic energy, as long as the pump is supplied with more water. Therefore, the shaft is usually attached to a surplus tank and a receiving container placed to tap the overflowing water so as to maintain a continuous water flow. This similar effect can still be attained without the mechanism of the pulley, by rotating impellers or vanes within a container.
Materials and classification of centrifugal pumps:
The centrifugal pumps are constructed from various materials including the cast iron, plastics, and the stamped stainless steel ideal for lighter applications.
Centrifugal pumps can also be classified into four main categories, with the primary distinction between these models being the way a reciprocating diaphragm is driven:
Solenoid and Air Operated
Double Diaphragm pumps
Applications of the centrifugal water pumps
The centrifugal pumps are often suitable for use with liquids of high flow rates and lower viscosity. These devices are generally utilized across various commercial, residential, municipal and industrial applications.